The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis ( MESA) did a study involving 6,814 men and women ranging from ages 45-84. Each of these patients had no previous cardiovascular risk factors Each of these individuals had a low total cholesterol and a low blood pressure. Also each participant were on no medications and were not smokers These patients were followed for 10.4 years Only 2.4 % of these participants suffered a cardiac event.
So what do you think was a predictor of the incident of heart disease? The single most important predictor was excessive calcium in the coronary arteries resulting in stiffness of these arteries.
In my office I perform an Arterial Stiffness test to determine if the arteries are stiff or non elastic. I measure the large and small arteries. If the arterial stiffness is abnormal. If the arteries are stiff the blood flow will decline. This is clue that some other testing must be done as carotid ultrasounds and a heart calcium score